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My favorite botanical Links
This is a list of links, which I already used to determine some of my plant photos, resp. of which I think, that they could be helpful, if I will visit the corresponding regions. I prefer sites with a certain completeness for their region.
North Eur.   F   E   I   GR   East Eur.   TR   
Fam.   Mosses   Lichens   IPNI   Forums   Maps
Central Europe and Alps:
Flora Web
Photos and short descriptions, as well as distribution maps and information on endangering and protection of the flora of Germany. In german language.
Florenliste von Deutschland
Flora list for Germany, the single Bundeslaender are also selectible.
Thomas Meyer built up a determination key based on photos for the plants of Germany. In german language. Successor of the site 'Blumen in Schwaben'.
Mittelmeer- und Alpenflora
Photo determination key for the plants of the southern half of Europe, implemented by Thomas Meyer and Michael Hassler. Not yet all families are available. Will be continued. In german language.
Thomas Meyer is also building up a determination key based on photos for ornamental plants used in Central Europe. In german language.
Flora von Deutschland
Data base from Michael Hassler with more than 4500 vascular plants of Germany, most of these with good photos. Moreover information is e.g. distribution and endangering. A speciality are photos of many of the difficultly determinable micro species of e.g. Ranunculus auricomus agg., Taraxacum of various sect., Sorbus hybrid clans, and Brambles (Rubus) of Germany.
Pflanzenwelt des Landkreises Karlsruhe
Data base from Michael Hassler with more than 2000 vascular plants of the region of Karlsruhe in South-West Germany in about 6000 usually very good photos. Moreover determination attributes, ecological site characteristics, and regional sites etc. are contained, too.
Bestimmungskritische Taxa der deutschen Flora
Scanned herbarium specimens of taxa of the German flora which are critical to determine. Currently available are genus Alchemilla, Crataegus, Hieracium including Pilosella, Rosa, Rubus and Taraxacum sect. Palustria. A site of the Senckenberg museums (Germany). In German language.
Flora Baden-Württemberg
The 8-volume book edition 'Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Baden-Württembergs' (The ferns and vascular plants of Baden-Württemberg / South-West Germany) belongs to the literature, which I use for plant determination also far beyond Baden-Württemberg. For almost all plants the books contain distribution maps, which are always actualized on this Web page. Moreover maps for new species have been provided. Since 2012 also single findings and finders per quadrant can be obtained.
Naturportal Südwest
A determination aid for plants, animals and fossils of Southwest Germany under construction. Of the plants currently the Grasses (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Typhaceae) are available. In German languange.
Botanik und Naturschutz in Hessen
Under 'Hessenliste' a list of the plants of the German Bundesland Hessen can be downloaded (3 MB). Under 'Bestimmungshilfen' there are keys for determination of difficult species and subspecies. Under 'Fundmeldungen' findings of rare plants of Hessen. In german language.
Botanischer Informationsknoten Bayern
Informations on distribution and endangering of the plants which are occurring the Bundesland Bavaria in the South-East of Germany.
Bochumer Botanischer Verein - Pflanzenbestimmung
Illustrated lists of plant pictures, grouped according to various aspects such as flower colors, leaves, fruits, and seedlings of herbaceous plants; Flower colors, leaves, fruits, buds, bark, habit, and seedlings in woody plants. Also lists according to habitat, of sowing plants, indoor plants and other criteria which could be useful for curtailation and determination of plants. Also of ferns, mosses, lichens, and mushrooms smaller photo collections are available. In the total species list all wild plants, neophytes, cultivated, and ornamental plants are listed of which photos are available in the internet site. In German language.
Gerhard Nitter
Beautiful photos and short descriptions of more than 2000 plants of Southern Germany up to the Alps, from Gerhard Nitter. In German language.
Fotografien von Wildpflanzen
Photos of more than 1000 central european plants from the former web site of Robert Flogaus-Faust, which are supplemented by plant descriptions from old botanical books. In german language.
Herbarium Christian Weingart
Distribution maps from Southern part of Palatinate, in which the locations of the 5271 herbarium samples of Christian Weingart are shown. The herbarium sheets seem not to be available digititally as scans, the herbarium is stored in the museum for nature studies of Pollichia at Bad Dürkheim, Palatinate, Germany.
Wildblumen Rheinhessen
Photos of more than 400 native plants which are growing between Worms and Mainz, nature reserves are presented, and several more from this region. In German language.
Schmitzens Botanikseite
Joachim Schmitz presents the plant societies of Rheinland and Eifel (Western Germany), where rather rare plants are occurring, too. In german language.
Flora Oberfranken Online
A private site containing datasheets on the plants of Oberbayern (southern central part of Bavaria), in many cases with photos.
Dr. Thomas Götz - Homepage -
Lists of plants from trips not only in the range of the Alps between France and Slovenia, but also from South Spain, the Pyrenees, Massif Central, Central Italy, and Istria. Moreover the author is buildung up a determination key in german language of all plants of the Alps and surrounding regions.
Exkursion Rhön . . .
List of plants and mushrooms which have been found during an excursion in the Rhön mountains (Hesse and Thuringe, Central Germany) in July 2011. In german language.
Aquatische Neophyten in Deutschland
2/2020 to at least 8/2021 out of order because of revision. Descriptions, information on distribution and origin, and also control of about 20 aquatic neophytes in Germany, which often ran wild from breeding in aquariums. In german language.
Natur in NRW
List of plants occurring in the German 'Bundesland' Nordrhein-Westfalen, which is located about in the middle of Western Germany. There are also lists on mosses, lichens, mushrooms, animals, etc.
Christian Winters Bio-Seiten
Photos of about 1800 plants, but also fungi and lichens, algae, animals, minerals, and microscope photos from an Austrian. The photos have not only been taken in Austria, but also in several European countries.
Ex Situ Erhaltung
Informations on conserving gardens and resettlement of threatened species in Germany.
Flora des Emslands
Incomplete survey on green (non-woody) plants of Emsland region (Northern Germany)
Bestimmungshilfe Thüringen . . .
Photos of details as e.g. pilosity or fruits, often from herbal sheets, as aid for the determination of difficult species of the flora of Thüringen (Central Germany), a site of the botanical society of Thüringen. In german language.
Sächsische Floristische Mitteilungen
The annual magazine contains lists of finds and botanical articles from Saxony. The link above downloads issue 24 of 2022. Parallel there are also earlier issues.
Flora Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Distribution maps of the plants (including mosses) in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. To select a particular plant, enter the first letter of the generic name and, separated by a space, the first letter of the species name into the search field, and the corresponding plants will be suggested.
Pflanzen von Dessau und Umgebung
Photos of plants and biotopes from the region of Dessau, Sachsen-Anhalt, Eastern Germany by E. R.Willing.
Plants from Mönchgut / Rügen Island (Germany)
Plant photos from the island of Rügen (North-East Germany) from Thomas Schoepke's page 'Plant Image Gallery'.
Flora der Alpen
Data base from Michael Hassler with more than 4700 vascular plants of the Alpes, with good photos.
Botanik im Bild: Flora von Österreich
Flora of Austria with mostly very good photos and in some cases short descriptions of the plants. However, by far not all Austrian plants are recorded. Issued by the Natural History Museum of Vienna. In german language.
Herbar WU (Wien Universität)
The herbarium of the University of Vienna. The data of all specimens are published, and the locations of the specimens can be displayed on a map. Only a part of the 1.4 million specimens have been digitised, mainly type specimens.
Pflanzenfotos Stefan Lefnaer
Photo documentation of over 1800 plants, mainly from eastern Austria, with many detailed photos, supported by information from the 'Exkursionsflora für Österreich, Liechtenstein, Südtirol' (3rd edition) and from the austrian Red List. New plants are added every year. In German language.
Flora of the Burgenland in eastern Austria, issued by Naturschutzbund: Search for plants according to criteria as name, flowers, flowering time, growth height, habitat and, if necessary, more criteria. Also botanical walks in Burgenland.
Swiss Web Flora
Flora of Switzerland with distribution maps and small photos of the plants, as well as information on endangering. The photos are from Konrad Lauber, who worked on the book editions 'Flora Helvetica' and 'Flora Alpina', too. The site is issued by the institute WSL of the swiss university. In german, english, french and italian languages.
Icones Florae Germanicae et Helveticae
Many-volume work with short descriptions in german language and colored drawings of the plants (in the newer volumes partly rather over-colored), issued by the botanist H. G. Reichenbach from Dresden between 1834 and 1914. The worked area is Central Europa and its peripherals as parts of Northern Italy, Alsace, Belgium, Netherlands, Danmark, Prussia, as well as the Eastern Regions of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire as Moravia, Hungary, Istria, Dalmatia, Transsilvania, etc. In each volume the index is found between the text part and the colored images, the corresponding page numbers are given below. The scanned books can be found in the web sites of the Botanical Garden of Madrid and of the Biodiversity Heritage Library, at both few but different volumes are missing.
Bot. Gar. Madrid:     Vol. 1: Poaceae (Index 47 - 50)         Vol. 1 (2. Auflage / 2nd edition): Poaceae (Index 72 - 80)         Vol. 2: Brassicac. (Index 23 - 31)
  Vol. 3: Papaveraceae, Violaceae, Cistaceae, Ranunculaceae         Vol. 4: Ranunculaceae (Cont., Index 29ff incl. Vol. 3)
  Vol. 5: Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Aceraceae, Malvaceae, Geraniaceae, Oxalidaceae, Caryophillaceae
  Vol. 6: Caryophillaceae (Cont.), Celastraceae, Tiliaceae, Linaceae, Hypericaceae (Index 73 - 84 incl. Vol. 5)
  Vol. 7: Isoetae, Zosteraceae, Araceae, Potamogetonac., Alismataceae, Hydrocharit., Poaceae (Index 39 - 40)         Vol. 8: Cyperaceae (Index 46 - 50)
  Vol. 9: Typhaceae, Iridaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Juncaceae (Index 23 - 24)         Vol. 10: Juncaceae (Cont.), Liliaceae (Index 33 - 34)
  Vol. 11: Nadelbäume / Conifers, Ephedraceae, Cytinaceae, Santalaceae, Eleagnaceae, Thymelaeaceae, Salicaceae, Myricaceae (Index 31 - 32)
  Vol. 12: Betulac., Fagaceae, Urticaceae, Moraceae, Aristoloch., Dipsaceae, Valerianac. (Index 32 - 34)         Vol. 13 & 14: Orchidaceae (Index 187 - 194)
  Vol. 15: Asteraceae (Distel-ähnliche / Thistle-like, Index 100 - 106)         Vol. 16: Asteraceae (Astern-ähnliche / Aster-like, Index 77 - 86)
  Vol. 17: Gentianac., Apocyn., Asclep., Oleac., Styrac., Ebenac., Aquifol., Primul., Plantagin., Plumbac., Pyrolac., Ericac., Caprifol., Rubiac. (Idx.104-113)
  Vol. 18: Lamiaceae, Verbenaceae, Boraginaceae, Polemoniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Polygalaceae (Index 93 - 103)
  Vol. 19 part 1: Campanulaceae, Lobelia, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Picris- & Xanthium-ähnliche / Picris & Xanthium-like, Index 124 - 135)
  Vol. 19 part 2: Asteraceae (Hieracium, Index 325 - 341)         Vol. 20: Solanaceae, Scrophul., Orobanch., Acanthac., Globulariac., Lentibul. (Idx.119-125)
  Vol. 21: Apiaceae (Index 101 - 108)         Vol. 22: Fabaceae (Index 211 - 230)
  Vol. 23: Onagraceae, Hippuridaceae, Lythraceae, Crassulaceae, Saxifragaceae, Adoxaceae, Araliaceae (Index 77 - 83) nicht vorhanden / not avilable
  Vol. 24: Loranthaceae, Cornaceae, Spiraea, Philadelphaceae, Aizoaceae, Thelygonaceae, Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae (Index 188 - 213)
 Biodiversity Heritage Library:     Vol. 1 (2nd edition)         Vol. 2         Vol. 3         Vol. 4         Vol. 5         Vol. 6         Vol. 7         Vol. 8
  Vol. 9         Vol. 10         Vol. 11         Vol. 12         Vol. 13 & 14: nicht vorhanden / not available         Vol. 15         Vol. 16
  Vol. 17 & 18: nicht vorhanden / not available         Vol. 19 part 1         Vol. 19 part 2         Vol. 20         Vol. 21         Vol. 22         Vol. 23         Vol. 24
Be - Ne - Lux:
Verspreidingsatlas NL
Dstribution maps of plants, mosses, lichens, mushrooms etc. for the Netherlands. Distribution maps of the seed plants and ferns of the Netherlands you can find here.
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Plant Guide
Photos of more than 900 plants from the campus of the catholic university of Leuven (Louvain, Belgium). The plant names are given in 5 languages.
Alien Plants of Belgium
Data sheets on many introduced plants (neophytes) of Belgium.
Northern Europe:
British and Irish Flora
Online atlas with short descriptions, distribution maps and in some cases photos of the ferns and flowering plants of Great Britain and Ireland. Issued by the Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland as well as other more or less official institutions.
British Wild Flowers
For each of the about 1900 species John Somerville shows one page with photos. If an English name is available for a plant, unfortunately only this is in the index, otherwise the scientific name. Into the search function scientific names can be introduced for all available plants.
Wild Flowers
Keys for plants occurring in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
National Biodiversity Network
Distribution maps and other information on plants and animals in Great Britain and Ireland, as well as information on nature reserves. The site has been re-organized after I had detected it, I don't know whether the plant data sheets are still available.
Wild Plants of the British Isles
Photos of British plants from Dr Peter Llewellyn.
The Cleveland Coast Flora Flora.pdf
PDF file containing biotope descriptions and plant lists of the coastal flora of Cleveland, North-East England.
First Hunt in North Wales . . .
Report of very early excursion in North Wales in beginning of march 2009. More excursion reports can be found under 'Reports' on the web site of 'The Wild Flower Society' of Great Britain.
Skye Flora
List and photos of the plants on the Isle of Skye.
Wild Flower Society
Site if the most important botanical society of Great Gritain. Bit zje list of all plants of Great Britain, which was available years ago, I couldn't find again in 2022.
Flora of Northern Ireland
Distribution maps and photos of plants of Northern Ireland, issued by the Environment and Heritage Service. Almost all of the plants, which I saw in western Ireland, are contained, too.
Lists of Irish plants
Different plant lists of Ireland, including mosses and characees, also lists of mushrooms and algae.
Wildflowers of Ireland
Private web site from Zoe Devlin with photos and texts on more than 500 plants from Ireland. Excellente navigation according to names, colors, and families. Time of flowering is also given.
Irish Wildflowers
Photos of more than 800 wildflowers of Irland, including 15 plants of the 'Lusitanian Flora' which don't occur in other parts of Northern Europe but in Spain and Portugal, and also including 4 introduced plants from Northern America.
Census Catalogue of the Flora of Ireland
The list of the plants of Irland with sites is currently built up, but only few and only small families are available yet.
Flora Danica
Illustrations on the Scandinavian and Northern German flora in 17 volumes, issued between 1761 and 1883.
Checklista över Nordens Kärlväxter
List of Nordic plants, i.e. those of Danmark (incl. Faroe Islands, without Greenland), Finland, Iceland, Norge, and Sweden. A site of the Museum for Natural History of Stockholm.
Herbarium Bergen
Photos of herbarium specimens of nordic flora iofthe university museum of Bergen / Norway.
Botanische Exkursionen nach Schwedisch-Lappland
Plant list from excursions of the Tübingen University (Germany) to Swedish Lapland.
Exkursion till Älgön
Excursion of university of Gothenburg to the island of Älgön, located north of the city in Bohuslän province, with photos of about 40 plants.
Henriette's Plant Name Search
Plant names in several languages, and more or less homoeopathical oriented assortment of more than 7000 plant photos, many of these taken in botanical gardens. A page from Finland.
Plants (
Photos of plants, mainly from Northern and Eastern Europe. The plant names are given in several languages. The site is part of the university net of Finland.
Plants on Iceland
Brief descriptions and small photos of some plants of Iceland.
Flora of Iceland
Check list of the plants of Iceland.
Pflanzenliste Grönland 2009
Plant list of an excursion to Greenland in 2009 of the University of Tübingen (South Germany). There are also geologic and glaciologic (i.e. on glaciers) themes on that excursion. In German and English languages.
Photo Flora (Benoit Bock)
More than 200000 images of most of the plants of France and increasingly of other parts of Europe, e.g. from the neighbor countries Spain and Italy, but also North Africa or the Canaries. Compiled by Benoit Bock. If you click in one of the genus pages on the numbers in front of the species names or in a photo page on the plant name you reach Tela-Botanica, where a distribution map according to departements of the corresponding plant is available among others:
Rough distribution maps per departement and more information as e.g. plant descriptions from old books on the flora of France including Corsica. In French language.
Index Synonymique de la Flore de France (ISFF)
Scientific names and synonyms of the French flora.
Atlas de la Flore de France
Distribution maps of the French flora either according to communities or in a 10 x 10 km grid pattern.
Toutes les plantes sauvages du département
Lists of scientific and French names of wild plants of all French departements. The departements are sorted according to their number, which almost follows the alphabeth (except the 6 last ones). The departements contain between about 1100 and more than 4000 plants.
Banque de données Botaniques et Ecologiques
Numerous photos of the flora of France, with partly old-fashioned naming. The link above is sorted according to genera. According to families. Some of the geographic assortments.
Flore de France . . .
Volume 1 of the Flora of France including Corsica from 1848 from M. Grenier and M. Godron. It contains verbal descriptions of plants in French language, sorted according to an old systematics from Ranunculaceae to Apiaceae. The index is in the rear part on pages 763 to 766. Another scan of the same book you can find here.
Volume 2 from 1850 contains the plant families Araliaceae to Globulariaceae. Index on pages 757 to 760. Another scan of the same book you can find here.
Volume 3 from 1855 contains plant families from Amaranthaceae over the Monocots to the Ferns and Lycopodiaceae. Index on pages 661 to 779.
Catalogue des taxons présents en région Lorraine
List of vascular plants of Lorraine / France. Under 'Atlas' there are also distribution maps in 5 x 5 km resolution available.
Flore Alpes
Flora of the Western Alps, the Provence, and adjacent regions, also some mountain flora of Corse, Spain, and Canarian Islands, selectable according to names, families, colors, date of flower, etc. Often village and altitude of the sites is mentioned. In french language.
Flore Jura
Plants of Franche-Comte, Jura, and southern part of Vosges.
Société de Botanique de France: Voyage d'étude en Vanoise
Photo report of a botanical journey to the Vanoise in the French Alps.
Vallée d'Eyne 7 août 2013 Eyne.pdf
Plant list from Eyne valley (Pyrenees) in August.
An old plant list from Eyne from April 1920 can be found here.
Prodrome de la Flore Corse
John Briquet's Flora of Corsica from 1910 in 2 volumes. Not all families are contained, the work had been planned for more volumes. The index of the first volume is found at the end of the books, the available part of the second volume doesn't contain an index. In französischer Sprache. More volumes are available at the Bibliotheque National de France (BnF).
Korsika 2006
Report of an excursion of the Botanical Institute of the University of Innsbruck (Austria) to Corsica in June 2006. Beneath scientific articles on several biotope types of the island there is a list of the found plants. In german language.
Fleurs de Cruzzini
About 60 plants from Cruzzini valley in Western Corsica are presented.
Invasive Plants de Corse . . .
List of invasive neophytes of Corsica.
Spain and Portugal:
Flora Iberica
Official flora of Spain and Portugal, which is also issued as a series of books. Most of the proposed volumes have already been issued. Between the texts there are several black-and-white sketches, for Orobanche and Orchids are photos available, too. The PDF files are reached via the left window of 'Clave General' or via 'Familias' or 'Generas'. Unfortunately selection of the PDF text is disabled, so it's rather difficult to insert the Spanish texts into an automatic translation program.
Spanish Plant Information System
Spanish-Portuguese (including Canary Islands, Madeira and Azores) botanical information system, where plants can be searched acccording to several criteria, or e.g. complete lists of plants of regions can be generated.
Flora Vascular
The descriptions of plants from Flora Iberica are combined with those from Spanisch regional floras for characteristics of the plants, illustrated with the drawings from Flora Iberica as far as available.
Familias Flores Silvestres de Espana
This site is going to document the spanish flora in photos. Up to now mainly southern spanish species are available.
Flora silvestre del Mediterráneo
Photos of western-mediterannean, usually spanish, plants sorted according to alfabeth, families, biotope types or different regions and mountains from Jose Quiles Hoyo.
Société de Botanique de France: Voyage d'étude en Espagne
Photo report of a botanical journey to Spain.
Flora of the northern parts of Catalunya. There is a short description for every species. Some plants are provided with photos. In Catalan languade.
Biodiversity data bank of Catalonia
Distribution maps and other information on plants, animals etc. of Catalonia.
Flors de les Nostres Muntanyes
Photos of several plants of Catalonia, mainly of the Pyrenees selectable via small thumbnail images.
El Medi Natural del Bages
The Catalan site shows plants and also animals of the region Bages, i.e the region around Manresa and Montserrat, by short description and photo. In spanish and catalan language, parts also in english.
Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos
Distribution maps, short descriptions and lists of regions of the vascular plants of the Province of Burgos. In Spanish language. Most probably the work exists in printed form, too. The work is also available in SCRIBD, where one has to log in for a download in suitable quality.
Picos de Europa Trip 2004 . . .
Plants found during a nine day trip to Picos de Europa in beginning of June 2004.
Picos de Europa Trip 2009
Plants and animals found during a trip to Picos de Europa in beginning of June 2009.
Orchid list Picos de Europa . . .
Orchid list of the Picos de Europa, compiled from several sources.
Descriptions, photos, etymological information etc. on thousands of plants, mosses, and algae from the Northern Spanish province of Asturia. In Spanish language.
Plantas silvestres de Ciudad Real
List of plants of the province of Ciudad Real, some with photo. Von Luis de Pablos Alcázar.
Photos of plants, animals etc. from Almeria
Almería Natural
Impressive photos of plants from mountains and nature reserves of the Province of Almeria. On parallel pages there are e.g. orchids.
Flora de Andalucía Occidental
Flora of Western Andalusia in three volumes with determination keys, descriptions and black-and-white sketches of the plants. In Spanish language.
Flora vascular de Andalucía Oriental . . .
Flora of Eastern Andalusia in four volumes with determination keys and descriptions of the plants, as well as photos of some plants. The link is for volume 4, for the other volumes the 4 at the end is to be substituted by 1, 2, or 3. In Spanish language.
Flora Amenazada y Endémica de Sierra Nevada, 2001 . . .
The book on endemic and endangered plants of the Sierra Nevada containing descriptions, photo, and distribution map. In Spanish language.
Flora de Cadiz
Photos of many plants of the province of Cadiz.
Gibraltar Flora
Lists of plants, animals, etc. occurring in Gibraltar. Issued by the Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society (GONHS).
Atlas y Libro Rojo de la Flora Vascular Amenazada de España. Adenda 2010 . . .
Additions 2008 to the Red Book of Spanish flora, with photo, description and map of very rare plants, usually local endemisms. In Spanish language.
Herbari virtual de les Illes Balears
Short descriptions and ususally some photos in good qualtity of the plants of the western Mediterranean, issued by the university of the Balearic Islands. Sorted according to families or biotopes, or one can enter sites on endemisms, neophytes, parasites, protected plants, useful plants, ferns, orchids, etc. In spanish, catalan and english language.
Mallorca-Exkursion 2008 der Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Photos of plants from Mallorca, and also the list of plants and the program of the excursion, which took place end of march 2008.
Pflanzenlisten Mallorca 2005
Lists of striking plants of 19 different sites of Mallorca, which have been found in march 2005, partly with photos. Here you can find an overall plant list.
The Mallorca Pages
14 pages of plant photos from a Mallorca trip from march 2004, and supplemental 8 pages from End of April 2005.
Flora und Vegetation der Straßenränder Mallorcas . . .
Flora and vegetation of the roadsides of the Spanish island of Mallorca, from Dietmar Brandes. In german language.
Sóller Botanic Garden
Site of the Sóller Botanic Garden, island of Mallorca. Re-visited in March 2021: Unfortunately the site has been revised, and much useful information has been removed, together with all former content in several non-Spanish and non-Catalan laguages. What a shame !
Flora und Fauna der südlichsten Pityusen-Insel Formentera
The site from Barbara Klahr contains a list of the plants of Formentera, the most southern of the Balearic Islands. For the orchids photos are available.
Flora on (Portugal)
The Botanical Society of Portugal presents more than 2000 plants of the country with photos, ecological attributes and distribution maps.
Flora digital de Portugal
The search in the database of the plants of Portugal delivers brief data sheets, some with photos, issued by the Botanical Garden UTAD at Porto. Here the data base can be searched according to genus, family, higher orders, or Portuguese name.
Flora Italiana
Lists of Italian Plants, always a genus per page arranged in a table, with small distribution maps according to provinces (which seem not to be complete, sometimes I find species in not marked neighbor provinces), altitude range, time of flower, link on Google search for images, etc.
Another view of the pages, based on the same data base, is reachable under Behind the data of all species of a genus here photos of most of the species are arranged. A list of the species per province is also selectable here.
Acta Plantarum
Gallery with almost 6000 italian plants, as well as forums. In italian language.
Il fascino scientifico dei fiori
Plants of Italy in distribution maps according to provinces and each a photo. There are also sortings according to flower color, biologic form, number of petals, month of flower, type of biotope, province, etc.
Dryades (Universita Trieste)
Portal for biodiversity information from the University of Trieste, which contains e.g. keys, maps and photos on plants, lichens, mosses, algae, lichens, fungi and animals, partly in English, partly in Italian language. Some important parts: Plant Portal Italy, Keys of plants from different landscapes of Northern Italy and the Alps, Lichen information system of Italy, Lichens of the Alps, Mosses of Italy, Liverworts of Italy.
Flora Veronese
Photos of plants from the region of Verona.
Flora Alpina Bergamasca
About 160 plants of the lombardian region are presented in each a photo and a description, which contains mainly history of investigation and naming of the plants, as well as in some cases the distribution. In italian language.
Flora delle Alpi Marittime
According to its own text this site presents a complete survey of the plants of 'Alpi Marittime', i.e. parts of Liguria und South-East France. The area goes along the coast from Albenga to west up to the Esterel mountains, and in the hinterland from Colle delle Maddalena to east further than Cuneo. This area contains about 55% of all Italian plants. Usually there is a photo per species, which often doesn't show details. In italian language.
Fiori protetti in Liguria latino.htm
List of about 90 protected plants of Liguria, of which few are presented with a photo and a text. In italian language.
Pagina di Giorgio Venturini
The author from Val d'Aveto northeast of Genova in Liguria presents hundreds of plants in good photos and a short text in italian language. There are also animals, mushrooms, etc.
Flora Cremasca
Inventory and some more information on the plants of the province of Cremona. In italian language.
Check List della flora vascolare del Monte Argentario
List of the vascular plants of Monte Argentario, distributed on 24 pages.
Archipelago Toscano: La flora - Esemplari ed habitat . . .
Plants of the islands of Tuscany, sorted according to biotope types. The biggest of these islands is Elba.
Archipelago Toscano: La flora - Gli endemismi . . .
List of endemisms of the islands of Tuscany.
Monte Pallano - Parco Archeologico Naturale
Internet site containing photos of flora, fauna, lichens, mushrooms etc from Monte Pallano in Abruzzo near Chieti. In Italian language.
Flora e Vegetazione della Sicilia
Short descriptions and photos of many plants of Sicily. The index is sorted according to the botanical system, i.e. the relationship of the plants. In Italian language.
Pflanzengeographie von Sizilien
Site of the University of Catania on plant geography and plants of Sicily, sorted according to regions, with special regard to endemisms. The page linked above is in German language, it is also available in Italian and Spanish.
Société de Botanique de France: Voyage d'étude en Sardaigne
Photo report of a botanical journey to Sardinia.
Eastern Europe:
Icones Florae Germanicae et Helveticae
Many volume work with short descriptions in german language and color drawings of the plants, issued by the botanist H. G. Reichenbach from Dresden between 1834 and 1909. The worked area is Central Europa and its peripherals as parts of Northern Italy, Alsace, Belgium, Netherlands, Danmark, Prussia, as well as the Eastern Regions belonging to the Austrian-Hungarian Empire as e.g. Moravia, Hungary, Istria, Dalmatia, Transsilvania, etc. The list of the volumes with links can be found at 'Central Europe' above.
(Tschechien) Data Base of the Czech Flora
Data base of the flora of Czechia, with photos and distribution maps in which information on local sites can be selected. In English language. Moreover there are plant determination keys in Czech language.
(Tschechien / Czechia) CSOP ZO Horepnik
Web site of a botanical club from Horepník in Czechia (between Praha and Brno), with many portaits of plants, but unfortunately the selection is only possible via Czech names and not via scientific names, with texts only in Czech language. For me the most interesting part of the site are series of photos from botanical excursions, mainly to Eastern Europe.
(Slowenien / Slovenia)
Photos of more than 500 plants from Slovenia.
Triglav National Park . . .
List of plants and animals of Triglav National Park in Slovenia, sorted according to their english names.
(Slowenien / Slovenia) Kamniski vrh
A site from Slovenia which presents more than 600 plants of the Kamnik Alps north of Ljubljana in photos. Short texts in slovenian language, which I can't read, are also available.
Flora Croatica Database
Data base of Croatian plants. Input a species, genus or family name etc., and you get a result page back with one ore more species. For the species sheets the user can select the contents, e.g. photos, distribution maps, information on nomenclature and endangering, etc. Location information has been disabled for normal users, some years ago it was still available. A site of the Institute for Botany of the University of Zagreb in english and croatian language.
Flora Croatica
Historical book from 1869 on the ferns and flowering plants of Croatia, from Schlosser and Farkas-Vukotinovic. The book contains keys in latin language.
Istrianet: Flora
Collection of several pages on plants from Istria (Croatia): Incomplete list of plants, photos of some plants, articles on plants of the nature reserve Prematura peninsula / Cape Kamenjak near Pula, alpine plants, poisonous plants, and several others. Parts in italian, english, german, and croatian language.
Florenliste Süd-Albanien 2005
Flora list of a trip in South Albania with sites.
The Bulgarian flora online
Photos and information on distribution and protection, as well as flower season and size of a selection of plants of Bulgaria. In bulgarian and english language.
Rila National Park . . .
Certainly incomplete list of plants and animals of Rila National Park in Bulgaria.
MyNature - Romanian Species Information Center
Plant and animal information site from Romania. The pages with photos of species are direectly accessible, for some other actions one has to register freely. At least parts are available in several languages, among these English and French.
Flora of Romania on-line . . .
About 1300 plant species from Romania shown by each several photos. In English language.
Wild Plants in Romania
Beautiful photos of about 800 plants mainly from the western part of Romania from Adrian Schlesinger which can be adressed alphabetically and via the plant families.
(Polen / Poland) Skorowidz naukowych nazw roslin
Large collection of plant photos from Poland.
(Russia and former USSR)
Photos of plants, animals, landscapes etc. of scientific excursions in Russia and other parts of former USSR. In english and russian language.
Flora of Greece
Rough distribution maps of Greek plants, for which Greece is divided into 13 regions as in the book 'Vascular plants of Greece: An annotated checklist' (2013), issued by the Hellenic Botanical Society, the University of Patras, and the Botanical Museum of Berlin. If there are photos just opened species are available, they can be opened in a viewer and details can be enlarged. In March 2022 I tried to determine mulleins from Samos, and had to realize that at least the photos of Verbascum lydium do not show this species, but some other one. In English language.
Flora of Greece web
Vascular plants checklist of Greece, based on the printed checklist from 2013, but updated with newer records.
Greek Flora
Photos and partly dot distribution maps for more than 4300 taxa of the Greek flora. In Greek language.
Natura Graeca,,1,2,Plants
Each a photo of more than 25000? plants of Greece. There are also photos of animals, funghi, etc.
Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana . . .
The Greek flora from Johannes Sibthorp in several volumes from the beginning of the 19th century has been reproduced for the web, but in relative poor quality. All volumes contain colored etchings of plants, not only from Greece and its islands, but also from Cyprus and Sicily. Some volumes contain also latin descriptions of the shown plants. The link above points to the first volume.
Vol. 1           Vol. 2           Vol. FGD3           Vol. FGD4           Vol. FGD5
Vol. FGE1           Vol. FGE2           Vol. FGE3           Vol. FGE4           Vol. FGE5
Nur Text (Prodromus): Vol. 1 (1806 - 09)   Vol. 2 (1813 - 16)        Download Vol. 1   Vol. 2
Greek Mountain Flora
Photos of plants from varies regions of Greece including Crete, mainly of the mountain flora. You can reach the information on mountains and plant photos via the file symbol in the upper right corner of the title page. Issued by travellers from Netherlands.
Willing: Contributions to Flora Hellenica
Detailed reports on plant findings in Greece (North, Central-Greece, Peloponnesus, Euboea) by E. R.Willing between 2002 and today. The site contains also photos of plants and biotopes.
Hellenic Nature
A blog which shows some hundred of Greek plants in photos.
Flora Hellenica
A blog which shows a number of Greek plants in photos.
Errata to T. Lafranchis and G. Sfikas: Flowers of Greece  
The two books and one DVD edition 'Flowers of Greece' from T. Lafranchis and G. Sfikas (DIATHEO Paris 2009) with short descriptions and photos of many plants is a valuable tool for determination of plants from Greece including its islands. A big part of the occurring plants is described briefly, many of these are also shown in photos. It is almost inevitable that such a large work contains some errors. Those which I have found when working with it or which were told to me I collected in the small internet page mentioned above.
Flora Attica
The site shows about 100 plants, most of which are frequent, among them 19 orchids. Attica is the region around Athens, with the mountains Hymettos (Ymittos) and Parnitha. Texts in greek language.
Flowers of Ymittos and Parnitha
A selection of flowering plants of the two mountains near athens, Ymittos and Parnitha, is shown in photos in this blog. There is also a blog on Peloponnesus Flowers from the same author.
George Pantakis, Index
Photos of some Greek plants, with an index of scientific names, all other texts are in Greek language.
Conspectus Florae Graecae flora . . .
Flora of Greece by Halacsy 1901 with plant descriptions in latin language. Index on pages 771 to 825.
Flora Peloponnese
Photos of plants of the Peloponnesus, sorted according to families or according to bloom colors, by Armin Jagel and Gisela Nikolopoulou.
Pelion's Flora
Blog on the flora of the Pilion mountain, with several photos, in Greek language.
Flora Ionica
Inventory of ferns and flowering plants of the Ionian Islands between Corfu and Zakynthos in the West of Greece, with many photos, compiled by botanists of the Vienna University.
Flora und Vegetation der Straßenränder Korfus . . .
Flora and vegetation of the roadsides of the Greek island of Korfu (Kerkyra), from Dietmar Brandes. In german language.
Azalas (Naxos) Herbarium
Site of a botanical interested landlady of holiday houses on the botany of the village Azalas on the island of Naxos. In German language.
Zur Flora und Vegetation der Insel Elafonisos (Lakonien, Griechenland)
Ecology and plant list of the island Elafonisos in Laconia, Greece, which is located at the south-eastern end of the Peloponnesus. Student's work at the university of Bochum, Germany. The some hundred plants are sorted according to families or bloom color. With introduction on climate, geology etc. in german language.
Flora Amorgina
Some Photos of plants of the island of Amorgos within a blog. The texts are in Greek which I unfortunately don't understand.
Cretan Flora
More than 900 plant species of Grete are presented in usually several photos and text in English language.
Flowers of Crete
More than 100 Cretan plants are shown in usually very good photos.
Crete - A Unique Paradise of Flowers
Photos of Cretan plants from a book "Crete - A Unique Paradise of Flowers", issued by the author. The link above is in german language, an english spoken version is also available.
Kreta Umweltforum
In the 'Kreta Umweltforum' (Crete Environment Forum) leaflets called 'Merkblätter' are available which present photos and short texts not only on landscape, people, and animals, but also several plants. In german language.
Cretan Flora
Each one photo of about 90 plants of Crete, moreover there is a second page with up to now less plants.
Flora of Rhodes and Chalki
Data base from Michael Hassler with 1475 vascular plants of the islands of Rhodes and Chalki, usually with good photos.
Artenliste Tilos Arten.htm
Plant list of the Greek island of Tilos (Dodecanese).
Some older browsers deliver a wrong page, because they end the adress at the space character: in this case add the missing ' Arten.htm' manually in the browser's address line.
Tilo Botanica
Flora of greek island of Tilos (Dodecanese) and translations of the plant names into several languages.
Eastern Aegean Flora Checklist
A flora list of Chios, Lesvos, Psara, Samos, Icaria, and Western Turkey (west of Izmir) von Mike Taylor as excel file.
Liste der Pflanzen von Samos . . .
List of 735 vascular plants of 90 families from the Greek island of Samos, sorted according to families, in latin letters. The list is part of a blog on the nature of Samos, mainly the flora, which the author Georgos Fakas is writing since 2008 in Greek language. There are also links on other blogs on various aspects of the nature of Greece.
Lesvos 2007
Natur travel report of a trip to Lesvos 20th to 27th of September 2007 with lists of seen birds and other animals as well as plants.
Honeyguide Wildlife Holidays: Lesvos
The report of a bird-watching excursion to Lesvos contains also a list of the found plants.
Flora of Cyprus
Flora of the island of Cyprus, often equipped with photos and some data. Either one searches a genus or species, or one opens Classification on the left side and navigetes to the desired family or genus or species. Some of the orchids, which have been described in the last tens of years, are missing, for other families I can't judge on that.
Endemic Plants of Cyprus
List of 128 endmic plants of Cyprus, often with links to photos.
Persephone Wanderweg
On the Persephone walking path near Platres in Troodos mountains, with list of the typical plants which can be seen. In german language.
Türkiye Bitkileri - Plants of Turkey
A site containing photos of plants of Turkey from several Turkish amateur botanists, in English and Turkish language
Plants of Turkey according to families, some with attached photos. One directory step higher there are also parts for animals und fungi.
The Virtual Herbarium of Van Province
Information on plants of the turkish province of Van, partially with photos of living plants or herbarium specimens. The site is build up as cooperation between the university and the environment management authorities of Van. In turkish and partially english language.
Plant list with photos of the Amanos mountain above Dörtygol in the Southeastern Province of Hatay, Turkey. A site of the university of Berlin.
Flora of Turkey
Photos of some plants from Turkey.
Kocaeli Bitkileri (Pflanzen der Türkei)
Photos of many plants from Turkey. In Turkish language.
Orchideen der Türkei
Cartographic representations and coordinates of many orchid findings in Turkey by Dr. Heimeier, contained are also findings of other travellers. In German language.
Fotos Armenien
Hundreds of plant- and other photos from a trip to Armenia 2016 from Marijn van den Brink. From the same author there are also photos from Kazakhstan, Iran, Turkey and many other countries of the world.
Orchideen Aserbaidschan, Armenien
Cartographic representations and coordinates of orchid findings in the two mentioned countries by Dr. Heimeier, contained are also findings of other travellers. In German language.
Middle East:
Flora of Israel Online
Flora of Israel by Botanical Garden of Jerusalem contains almost 3000 plants in usually very good photos, e.g. microscope photos of 6 Portulaca oleracea s.l. clans.
Flora of Israel
Plant photos from Israel. Unfortunately the server is often overloaded, then only an error message comes up.
Wild Flowers of Israel
Photos of plants from Israel.
Flowers in Israel
Photos of many flowers from Israel sorted according to the alphabet, flower color or families. There are also pages of plants of the Bible in english language, as well as lists of flowering times and of plants protected in Israel.
Checklist of plants of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Plant list of the Kingdom of Jordan.
Plants of Lebanon and Syria
List of plants of Lebanon and Syria, with links to photos. 2/2020 the links to the photos aren't working anymore.
Northern Africa:
Malta Wild Plants
The author Stephen Mifsud presents more than 1100 plants of Malta and Gozo with many photos.
Flore du Maghreb
Staff of the Botanical Garden of Geneve (Switzerland) as well as French and North African scientists are building up a key for the flora of Northern Africa in the internet. As far as available own photos and freely available drawings are used to illustrate details. A part of the plants, usually the more special ones, is already listed but currently not yet keyed. In French language.
Flore du Maroc
A project in an early stage, to build up a flora of Morocco, consisting of keys and data sheets of plants, the data sheets are containing description, distribution map and photos. In French language. The author Alain Dobignard travels to Morocco since 1981. Currently (Dec. 2018) only about the tenth part of the plants of Morocco is contained yet, mainly ferns and horsetails, gymnosperms, and umbellifers.
Flore et groupements végétaux du sud-ouest marocain
Photo of Plants from South West Morocco. In French language.
Exkursion nach Marokko 2005 . . .
Report and plant lists of a botanical excursion of the University of Bonn / Germany. In German language.
Herbarium of Gérard de Belair
Gérard de Belair collected botanical data of many plants in Eastern Algeria within 30 years, now he prepared the photographed herbarium sheets, photos and site data for the internet. In English language.
Who knows web sites on the flora of Tunisia ? E-Mail:
Unterwegs in Tunesien
Plant photos from a Tunisia trip of Andreas Haselböck 11th - 15th March 2009. A small part of the found plants has not been determined yet.
Western Desert
Contribution of Czech scientists on the Bahariya Oasis in the Egyptian Western Desert, with links to a survey of the biotope types and to an alfabetical sorted plant list with photos.
Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores:
Flora Canaria . . .
Photos of many vascular plants of the Canary Islands, including some garden plants.
Pflanzen der Kanaren
Small photos of about 200 plants of the canarian islands from Armin Jagel. With a short introduction in german language.
Kanaren und Madeira Kanaren.htm
Good photos of plants from Canary Islands and Madeira by E. and R. Willing.
Fotoreisebericht Teneriffa
Short descriptions of about 150 plants of Tenerife with small phots, parallel there are pages on mushrooms, lichens, animals and touristic destinations. In German language.
Biodiversidade dos Acores
The site 'Data base of bio diversitiy of the Azores' contains plants, fungi, lichens, marine invertebrates and animals of the Azores. In English, Spanish, and Portuguese languages.
Spanish islands see also at Spain and Portugal above, e.g. 'Flora Iberica' or 'Spanish Plant Information System' Anthos.
Europe and the whole World:
Mittelmeer- und Alpenflora
Photo determination key for the plants of the southern half of Europe, i.e. Central Europe, Alpes, and Southern Europe, implemented by Thomas Meyer and Michael Hassler. Not all families are available yet. Will be continued. In german language.
World Plants . . .
List of the more than 350000 vascular plants (i.e. ferns and angiosperms) in the world in the systematic sequence of the families and genus, by Michael Hassler.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
GBIF provides taxonomic and location information on all types of creatures, maybe animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, or other organisms. With Get Data | Occurrences | Scientific Name | Major Groups | Plantae | Tracheophyta | ... you can climb from the higher classifications down to individual species of e.g. plants and then see the data of all registered herbarium specimens and finds of this taxon including coordinates of their locations. Similarly, access should work via Get Data | Locations | Continent | ..., but I had difficulties to select locations test-wise.
Flora Europaea
Search species or genus in the Flora Europaea. The family and genus names must start with a capital.
Museum National d'Historire Naturelle
Thousands of herbary sheets which can be viewed in full size are provided by the natural history museum at Paris.
The Linnean Collections
'The Linnean Society of London' shows herbarium sheets which can be enlarged (zoomed) so big that also details can be seen. Moreover there are scans of preparations of insects and fishes. A 'Flash' installation in the browser is needed for the zooming feature.
Biodiversity Heritage Library
The Biodiversity Heritage Library links on scanned older literature on botanics, of which the copyright has expired, which are hosted by several museums and other providers. This is valuable if you are e.g. looking for older original descriptions of plants. Input the title of the searched publication into the search form.
Site with location information for plants, animals and other organisms, which is mainly used by Dutch and Belgians, but contains also finding in other countries. You enter the name of a (rare) plant. If findings appear, you click on the date on the left side of the Observations list to see detail information down to the geographic coordinate.
Seeds of thousands of mainly European plants, but also non-European plants from botanical gardens, drawn by Miliza Tischler.
Wilde Blumen von Europa
Beautiful photos and some information as synonyms, distribution, biotope, and flower time of more than 4500 plants from various european countries, from Manfred and Jutta Blondke, in German language, the title page exists in English, too.
A botanical image data base with about 5000 photos of about 3000 european plants, as well as a list of german and scientific plant names for about 7000 species.
Lists of plants from trips to almost all countries of Western Europe, by a travel agency from Netherlands. And here there are links on official and private plant sites of European countries.
Mediterranean and Canary Islands Plants
Plant photos from the Mediterranean and the Canarian Islands from Thomas Schoepke's page 'Plant Image Gallery'.
Photoflora (David Scott)
Photos of plants from Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Southern Spain, Portugal, Cyprus, Czechia, Slovakia, and several other countries.
EuroMed Plant Base
Plant data base for Europe, especially the Mediterranean. The nomenklature is shown, including the names in several languages.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
Drafts of partly new order and family assignments of the vascular plants according to evolution and relationship. Represented is the draft no. 3 from 2009. The Boraginaceae and some non-European families aren't assigned to an order yet.
The Phylogeny of Angiosperms
Detailed presentation of the APG system of the class of the Magnoliopsida under the Angiosperms on many pages. The systematic goes over subclasses and orders down to families and their genera. If you click on the name of a genus in the page of a family, you will see photos of also rare species of this genus, as far as available.
Pacific Bulb Society . . .
Short texts and photos on bulb plants (e.g. Lilies, Narcissus, Cyclamen, etc.) from everywhere in the world. For gardeners it has a remarkable scientific approach. Within the corresponding genus many European, North African, and Anterior Asian species are mentioned.
Flora of North America
Flora of USA and Canada (i.e. North America north of Mexico) which is issued in 30 book volumes and in the internet. About 21 volumes have already been published, with keys, descriptions, and in some cases small line drawings.
Flora of China
Flora of China in 25 volumes prepared for the Internet, with keys and descriptions of the plants.
Genera and Families of Flowering Plants:
Offene Naturführer
More than 400 determination keys for many genus in german language. Under Tabellarische_Bestimmungshilfen you can find some tables for determination of (British) Apiaceae, small flowered Epilobium, wood ferns, Black Poplar Hybrids, Potamogeton natans Hybrids.
De Wilgenzoeker
"The Willow Searcher", a site from Pol Meert offers a textual determination key for willows, native species as well as hybrids and also often cultivated ones. Photos are not available. In Dutch language. On some pages, e.g. 'Bijlage 5' some photos are available, too.
Short descriptions and small photos of many Garlic species, in Danish language.
The Genus Lilium
Descriptions and photos of Lilium species world-wide. A site in english and german language from Markus Hohenegger (Austria).
Articles and links on the Amaryllidaceae family world-wide, to which genus Narcissus, Pancratium, Leucojum, Galanthus, Sternbergia etc. belong in Europe. In french language.
Lepidium, Geum . . .
Detail photos for determination of the small Lepidium species virginicum, neglectum, densiflorum, ruderale. The site belongs to the internet presence of the Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Flora Deutschlands (i.e. society for the exploration of the flora of Germany), which contains a photo determination site for Geum rivale, urbanum and its hybrid, too. In German language.
Primula World
The photo gallery contains photos of many species of genus Primula world-wide.
Androsace World
The photo gallery contains photos of many species of genus Androsace world-wide.
Rubus in Schleswig-Holstein
Descriptions, partly also photos and distribution maps of blackberries of Schlewsig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen and partly also Northrhine-Westphalia (Northern Germany). The attributes which allow to identify the corresponding species are especially pointed out. In German language.
Schlüssel für Rubus in Schleswig-Holstein . . .
Complementary to the above web site a key on the brambles of Schleswig-Holstein is provided. In German language.
Brambles of the British Isles
Descriptions and photos of brambles of the Britisch Isles. In English language.
Systematics and Biogeography of Lathyrus
Determination of the relationship between different species of genus Lathyrus via DNA sequencing. For the complete article follow the link 'Full Text (PDF)' resp. 'Full Text (HTML)' on the right side.
Oxalis Schlüssel / Key
A key of central and south european Oxalis species from Michael Becker. Moreover he presents some ornamental Oxalis species, and gives an introduction into family Oxydalidaceae. In German language
Geranium Artprofile mit Fotos
Overview of 234 Geraniums: garden hybrids and some botanical species. In German language
Identify a Euphrasia
This site from the Botanical Society of the British Isles helps with the determination of Euphrasia species.
The site about Orobanche and their relatives is currently built up. In August 2019 not accessible.
Orobanche - Photo Gallery of Species . . .
Photos of Orobanche world wide.
Portulaca Key 2012 Caryophyllales Symposium.pd . . .
A key about 19 microspecies of the Portulaca oleracea agg. which differ by the size of the seed and different surface structure configurations on the seed, with photos from scanning electron microscope.
Die Gattung Taraxacum im östlichen Deutschland . . .
Determination keys and ink drawings of more than 170 Dandelion clans of Eastern Germany, by Ingo Uhlemann, issued as part 3 of the papers on floristic mapping of Sachsen-Anhalt in 2003.
Image gallery of the genus Taraxacum
Collection of photos of some Taraxacum species, often of plants which have grown from seed in scientific institutions, by the Czech scientist Radim J. Vasut.
Taraxacum Nederland
Classification of the Taraxacum of the Netherlands into sections and series with many photos of the corresponding species. In Netherlands language.
Determination of trees according to leaves, bark, blossoms, fruits, etc., by means of photos.
Süßgräser Merkmale bestimmen/Suessg . . .
Excel file for detemination of central european grasses according to tables with attributes, and links to photo pages of the species. The photo pages of the autors contain close-up photos of the relevant attributes.
Sauergräser der Schweiz
Keys for determination of Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Juncaginaceae, Scheuchzeriaceae of Switzerland in non-flowering state. In german language.
Fern Plants:
Community Web Site for people who are interested in fern plants. Characteristics of some ferns, club mosses, and horsetails. In german language.
Fern Crib crib
Determination site for ferns from the British Pteridological Society.
Fern ID
British data base for ferns.
Equisetum-Schlüssel . . .
Determination keys for Equisetum in Germany, including rare hybrids, in German language.
Moose Deutschland
Not public anymore, accessible only by login: Photos of hundreds of mosses which occur in Germany can be reached by inputting the name into a search mask. There are also distribution maps for some german regions. In german language.
Bildatlas der Moose von M.Lüth
Photographic profiles including microscope images of the deciduous mosses of Germany.
Bestimmungsschlüssel für Moose des Geländes der Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Determination key for the mosses of the area of the University of Bochum, Germany. In German language.
Moose, von Michael Becker
About 70 Central European mosses are presented in German language, few of these also in English and French. Additionally there is a survey about this plant group.
Bestimmungsschlüssel für Flechten des Geländes der Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Determination key for the lichens of the area of the University of Bochum, Germany. In German language.
Flechten Baden-Württembergs
The species list and Red list of the lichens of Baden-Württemberg, Southwest Germany, can be downloaded here.
Lichens of Belgium, Luxembourg and northern France
Site of lichens with hundreds of species, partly with photos and distribution maps
British Lichens
Site on British lichens with photos of 550 species
Lichens of Ireland
Lists and photos of lichens in Ireland.
Irish Lichens
Photos of lichens in Ireland.
Lichen Herbarium Botanical Museum University of Oslo
Large collection of lichen photos
Algae Base
Search for names of algae growing in the sea, in fresh water or terrestrically world wide. Extensive information is provided, for some species also a photo.
Liste der Meeresalgen von Helgoland
List of the Brown, red and Green Algae of the German island of Helgoland.
Algae of all kinds, as well as plants, animals, fungae (lichens) etc. which are occurring at French sea coasts.
Related Themes:
Thomas Meyer is building up a determination key based on photos for ornamental plants used in Central Europe. In german language.
Baumbabies Keimlinge Waldbä . . .
Seed leaves of plants are often looking rather different to the later normal leaves. The site shows seedlings of some trees with leaves as well as with needles. In German language. Due to the 'ä' and the spaces in the link the site isn't found by some browsers, in this case enter 'Baumbabies' into a search engine in order to find this site of the Schulbiologiezentrum Hannover.
Flowers in Ultraviolet
Each some plants of many families have been photographed on one hand normally, on the other hand using UV filter, as some insects see it. From Bjørn Rørslett.
Input a plant (genus) and you get a list of galls, parasitic fungus, etc. which infest it, as well as catapillars (incl. leaf miners) which eat at it. For many pests photos of the corresponding damage are available. In English language.
Pflanzen-Gallen / Plant Galls
Caution, currently site by a doubtful provider, former: Survey on plant galls with images, sorted according to latin plant names. In german language.
Volkers Pflanzengallen
Not only 100 different plant galls, but also slime mould () and fungi, e.g. parasitic micro fungi) are shown here in photos. In English language.
Phytoparasitische Kleinpilze
Julia Kruse presents parasitic micro-fungi, of which there are many more than the well-known rust fungi and mildew. In german language.
Dictionaries and Etymology:
International Plant Name Index (IPNI)
Search functions on plant names and their authors. The page is issued by the Botanical Gardens of Kew near London, where the plant names of the whole world are registrated.
World Checklist of selected Plant Families
For 151 plant families (of which only some are occurring in Europe, e.g. Orchidaceae, Liliaceae, Lamiaceae, several small families of plants growing in water) this site of the botanical garden of Kew (where the botanical names of the whole world are registered) can show e.g. accepted names and synonyms or geographical distribution.
I checked some european orchid species, there are several synonym evalations unfounded, especially at Ophrys species which are supposed to be of hybridogenous origin. E.g. if one inputs 'Ophrys arachnitiformis', several other true species, e.g. Ophrys archipelagi, cephalonica, tyrrhena, and even splendida and cilentana, are wrongly displayed as synonyms of it.
The Plant List
Working list of all plant names with authors and status (accepted name or synonym). Provided as collaboration of Kew Gardens, Missouri Botanical Garden and several other institutions.
ICBN Shenzhen Code 2018
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature "Shenzhen Code", valid from 2018.
ICBN Melbourne Code 2012
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature "Melbourne Code", valid from 2012. From 2018 is has been substituted by the "Shenzhen Code", see above.
ICBN Vienna Code 2006
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature "Vienna Code", valid from 2006. From 2012 it has been substituted by the "Melbourne Code", see above.
Wikispecies: Glossary
Explanations on nomenclatural terms and abbreviations of botanic, as e.g. 'basionym' or 'nom.ined.'.
Liste von Botanikern . . .
Collection of plant authors with short biographical data, sorted according to the short abbreviations of their names.
The free dictionary
Verbal explanations of scientific terms, among these also botanical ones, in english language.
Dave's Garden Botanical Dictionary
Reference work on botanical terms, of which the biggest part amounts to the meaning of the plant names.
Acta Plantarum, Etimologia
Explanations (etymology) for the words of the scientific plant names of plants occurring in Italy and parly neighbor regions. In Italian language.
Gledhill, The Names of Plants
Book from David Gledhill 'The Names of Plants' (2008), which lists the etymology of the plant names. The older edition from 2002 can be found here.
California Plant Names
A dictionary of botanical and biographical etymology. Latin and Greek meanings and derivations of the plant names, from a Californian (USA) flora.
Etymologisch-botanisches Handwörterbuch
Etymological-botanical dictionary from Wittstein (1856) which contains explanations of many botanical genus names. In German language.
Dictionary of Botanical Epithets
Etymology of specific names.
Pronounce names
Tells how to pronounce names, e.g. of villages, if you enter it in written form.
Harvard Herbaria, Index of Botanists
Brief biographic data of botanists, from whom plant specimens are in the Herbarium of the Harvard university.
Index Collectorum Herbarii Senckenbergiani . . .
Brief biographic data of botanists, from whom plant specimens are in the Herbarium of the Institute Senckenberg in Frankfurt. In German languange.
List of Biologists
Lists of biologists of any specialization: botanists, zoologits, etc.
Index Fungorum
Lists of fungi and authors of fungi, etc.
Pilze Pilze: Wissenschaftliche Namen
Radicals and endings of words used to build scientific names listed alphabetically, from a site on mushrooms, in german language.
List of Authors of Animal Names . . .
List of authors of scientific names of animals.
Forums for Plant Determination:
Forum Flora Germanica
German Forums for determination of plants, mosses, mushrooms, etc. Usually in german language, English should be possible.
NaFoKu Forum
Forum for determination of wild plants and animals from Central Europe including the Alpes. In german language.
Forum des Orchidees indigenes
French forums for native orchids, in french language.
Forum Flora Austria
Plant determination forums of the 'Verein zur Erforschung der Flora Österreichs' (Society for investigation of the Flora of Austria), usually in german language, English should be possible.
Load images up to 2 MB via 'Dateien hinzufügen' into the forum, [Img] generates only a link to the image source. Images are shown 800 pixel wide.
Natura Mediterraneo
Italian forums for determination of plants, mushrooms, animals, etc.
Usually in italian language, English should be possible.
Maps and Air Views:
Deine Berge Online Koordinaten Umrechner,8.5
You can insert a coordinate in one of several coordinate systems, and will be converted into many other coordinate systems, e.g. geographic coordinates in three representations, UTM, as well as German, Swiss and other national grids, and others. The location is also shown on a map or air view, of which several free representations as e.g. OpenStreetMap, OpenTopoMap, EsriSat, etc. can be selected. In many cases I use this site now instead of the regional geo-portals in order to visualize coordinates and their surrounding. Unfortunately the site has been drastically deteriorated since about 2022, with about a third of the former map being plastered with advertising space, and sometimes the whole page is overlied by an advertisement. It seems Lucas Bauer from Erkelenz, the issuer of the coordinates converter, can't get enough of it!
Open Street Map
Non-official map of the whole world, at least in Europe of satisfying exactness. Street names, house numbers, and also dirt roads and walking paths are visible in many cases. The locations are labeled in the respective national language using the usual characters.
Open Topo Map
Non-official map based on the OpenStreetMap with additional contour lines, whose representation is leaned on the German topographical maps.
Geodaten Deutschland
Various geo data viewers of Germany
DOP Viewer Deutschland . . .
DOP Viewer: Air views of whole Germany
Deutschland Viewer
Maps of whole Germany
MTB-Blattschnitt auf OpenTopMap darstellen
The leaf section of a selectable Bavarian MTB (official Topographic Map) is shown on OpenTopoMap. It works for non-Bavarian Topographic Map numbers, too, but then the data amount is limited, to prevent from mass accesses. Purpose: If one gets a find spot in the form 'MTB6713/42' one can see the location of this quadrant. Generally one can see which landscapes and places are shown in a specific MTB or MTB quadrant, without buying the corresponding map. In German language.
Bayern Atlas
Official maps and air views of Bavaria / Southern Germany. For several of the following map services Java is needed and pop-ups must be enabled. The map services of this and the following German 'Bundesländer' are usually in German language.
Baden-Württemberg Geo Viewer
Geo data viewer of Baden Württemberg (Southwest Germany)
Official maps of Rheinland-Pfalz / Southwest Germany: After start-up a colored map with plot names is shown. Locations with street names or coordinates in different systems (German grid Gauß Krüger, UTM, geogr. only decimal-degree) can be shown. Only German grid Gauß-Krüger coordinates can be indicated.
LANIS Rheinland-Pfalz
Maps of Nature Reserves in Rheinland-Pfalz
Geoportal Saarland
Official maps of Saarland
Geoportal Hessen
Official maps and aerial views of Hessen
Map services of geo server Nordrhein-Westfalen: After start-up maps in black and white (grey scales) are shown, the usual colored indication can also be chosen. Names of streets are shown, but not names of plots. You can search locations incl. street names or coordinates in the usual representations (German grid Gauß-Krüger, UTM, or geogr.).
Niedersachsen . . .
Official maps of Niedersachsen / Northern Germany
Geoportal Bremen
Official Map of Bremen in Northern Germany (without Bremerhaven)
Geo-Online Hamburg
Official Maps of Hamburg (Northern Germany)
Geoportal Schleswig-Holstein . . .
Official Maps of Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg (Northern Germany)
Geoproxy Thüringen
Official maps of Thüringen
Official Maps of Sachsen
Official Maps of Sachsen-Anhalt
Official Maps of Brandenburg (East Germany)
FIS Broker Berlin und Brandenburg
Maps of land development plans for Berlin and Brandenburg
GAIA Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Official Maps of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Northeast Germany)
Landeskarten der Schweiz
National maps of Switzerland
Austrian Map
Official map and air view of Austria
Austrian Map Online
Austrian map on-line
Open Street Map Slovakia
Very detailed free map based on Open Street Map with topographical information of Slovakia and its neighboring areas, the coordinates of the call are chosen so that it shows the border region to Austria. By shifting at least the whole Pannonian region of Austria in Burgenland and Niederösterreich (Lower Austria) can be shown, perhaps much more.
In this information site for mountain walkers and winter sporting persons different kinds of maps (OSM etc.) can be opened via 'Karte', the map can also be shown on three quarters of the screen.
Restricted online version of the Kompasss walking maps. Not the best maps but the walking paths well visible.
Onlinekarten Übersicht
Links to the online maps portals of France, Italy, Swiss, Austria, Slovenia, Spain, Norway, Iceland, and other countries.
Geoportal Luxemburg
Official map of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
Google Maps
Word wide road maps from Google. The coordinates of a certain location can be determined by approaching the location with the mouse, in the right mouse key menu click 'Center here', then the coordinates as UTM (WGS-84) can be seen via the 'link' right above the map behind 'll='.
Freeway Maps
Maps of a participation project, the quality between very good and very bad depends on the region. Coordinates as UTM (WGS-84) can be seen in the right lower corner if approaching a location with the mouse.
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Start page
Other Plants
Plants acc. to Families
.. Relationship:
.. Scientific Names
.. German Names
.. English Names
.. Bloom Colors
.. Flower Anatomy
.. Leaf Form
.. Regions
.. Photo Month
.. Fruits + Seed
.. Roots + Bulbs
Pest Infestation + Deformations
Water Plants
Climbers + Twiners
Useful Pl.
Ornamental Pl.
Color Var.
Multiple Criteria
Biotopes + Groups

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