Some Neophytes in North Rhine-Westphalia
'Neophytic' and 'adventive plants' are wild plants, which were not originally growing there, but immigrated or were introduced since 1492 when Columbus reached America. 'Neophytic' means those of the immigrated or introduced plants, which are able to adapt to the climatic and other conditions, and last permanently. The more general term 'adventive plant' is used for any plant which arrives newly, even if it isn't able to last. Plants which immigrated or have been introduced earlier than 1492 are called 'archaeophytes', but these are not the theme of this page.
Some findings of outstanding neophytes from North Rhine-Westphalia are presented here. Frequent neophytes as Solidago, Amaranthus etc. aren't mentioned here, these are e.g. shown in Neophytes in the 'Kurpfalz', the presentation on the neophytes of the region around Mannheim and Heidelberg in Baden-Württemberg.



At the Rhine shore of Zündorf and (Porz-)Langel in the South-East of Cologne in autumn the following neophytes are found among others:
Persicaria pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Smartweed
Persicaria pensylvanica / Pennsylvania Smartweed
Polygonaceae / Knotweed Fam.
Abutilon theophrasti, Velvet Leaf, Flowering Maple
Abutilon theophrasti / Velvet Leaf, Flowering Maple
Malvaceae / Mallow Fam.
Solanum chenopodioides, Whitetip Nightshade, Goosefoot Nightshade
Solanum chenopodioides / Whitetip Nightshade, Goosefoot Nightshade
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
Physalis grisea, Downy Ground Cherry
Physalis grisea / Downy Ground Cherry
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
Physalis peruviana, Cape Gooseberry
Physalis peruviana / Cape Gooseberry
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
Cucurbita pepo, Marrow
Cucurbita pepo / Marrow
Cucurbitaceae / Cucumber Fam.
Citrullus lanatus, Water Melon
Citrullus lanatus / Water Melon
Cucurbitaceae / Cucumber Fam.
Helianthus annuus, Sunflower
Helianthus annuus / Sunflower
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
Datura stramonium var. tatula, Purple Thorn Apple
Datura stramonium var. tatula / Purple Thorn Apple
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
Datura stramonium, Thorn Apple
Datura stramonium / Thorn Apple
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
Mimulus guttatus, Monkey Flower
Mimulus guttatus / Monkey Flower
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.



At the edges of a foot path in the area of the university of Bochum the following four neophytes have been found in 2018:
Impatiens tricornis, Three-Horned Balsam
Impatiens tricornis / Three-Horned Balsam
Balsaminaceae / Balsam Fam.
Impatiens balfourii, Balfour's Balsam
Impatiens balfourii / Balfour's Balsam
Balsaminaceae / Balsam Fam.
Atriplex hortensis, Garden Orache
Atriplex hortensis / Garden Orache
Chenopodiaceae / Goosefoot Fam.

Cyclamen hederifolium, Ivy-Leaved Cyclamen, Sowbread
Cyclamen hederifolium / Ivy-Leaved Cyclamen, Sowbread
Primulaceae / Primrose Fam.

Cyclamen hederifolium, Ivy-Leaved Cyclamen, Sowbread
Cyclamen hederifolium / Ivy-Leaved Cyclamen, Sowbread
Primulaceae / Primrose Fam.

Carex vulpinoidea, American Fox Sedge, Brown Fox Sedge
Carex vulpinoidea / American Fox Sedge, Brown Fox Sedge
Cyperaceae / Sedge Fam.
  Bochum; from America
Cortaderia selloana, Pampas Grass
Cortaderia selloana / Pampas Grass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
  Motorway at Bochum
Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Amur Silver Grass
Miscanthus sacchariflorus / Amur Silver Grass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
  Hövelhof, Bochum
Onopordum x hortorum, Garden Cotton Thistle
Onopordum x hortorum / Garden Cotton Thistle
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
Bunias orientalis, Warty Cabbage
Bunias orientalis / Warty Cabbage
Brassicaceae / Crucifers

Lysichiton americanus, American Skunk Cabbage, Swamp Lantern
Lysichiton americanus / American Skunk Cabbage, Swamp Lantern
Araceae / Arum Fam.
  Duisburg; from America
Pistia stratiotes, Water Cabbage
Pistia stratiotes / Water Cabbage
Araceae / Arum Fam.
  Moated castle of Lüdinghausen; Erft near Grevenbroich
Myriophyllum heterophyllum, Various-Leaved Water Milfoil, Twoleaf Water Milfoil
Myriophyllum heterophyllum / Various-Leaved Water Milfoil, Twoleaf Water Milfoil
Haloragaceae / Water Milfoil Fam.
  University of Düsseldorf
Sagittaria latifolia, Broadleaf Arrowhead
Sagittaria latifolia / Broadleaf Arrowhead
Alismataceae / Water Plantain Fam.
  Elmpt Schwalmbruch; from Northern America
Symphytum x hidcotense, Hidcote Comfrey
Symphytum x hidcotense / Hidcote Comfrey
= Symphytum grandiflorum x uplandicum
Boraginaceae / Borrage Fam.
  Edge of the Teverener Heide
Lysimachia clethroides, Gooseneck Loosestrife
Lysimachia clethroides / Gooseneck Loosestrife
Primulaceae / Primrose Fam.
  Kierspe; from East Asia
Collomia grandiflora, Large-Flowered Collomia
Collomia grandiflora / Large-Flowered Collomia
Polemoniaceae / Jacob's-Ladder Fam.
  Eifel near Herhahn; from America
Veronica peregrina, American Speedwell
Veronica peregrina / American Speedwell
Scrophulariaceae / Figwort Fam.
Chionodoxa sardensis, Sardes Glory of the Snow
Chionodoxa sardensis / Sardes Glory of the Snow
Liliaceae / Lily Fam.
  Hagen, Jülich
Hyacinthoides non-scripta, English Bluebell
Hyacinthoides non-scripta / English Bluebell
Liliaceae / Lily Fam.
Allium paradoxum, Few-Flowered Leek
Allium paradoxum / Few-Flowered Leek
Liliaceae / Lily Fam.
Aconogonon polystachyum, Himalayan Knotweed
Aconogonon polystachyum / Himalayan Knotweed
Polygonaceae / Knotweed Fam.
Persicaria nepalensis, Nepal Knotweed
Persicaria nepalensis / Nepal Knotweed
Polygonaceae / Knotweed Fam.
Ceratocapnos claviculata, Climbing Corydalis
Ceratocapnos claviculata / Climbing Corydalis
Fumariaceae / Fumitory Fam.
Aucuba japonica, Gold Dust Plant
Aucuba japonica / Gold Dust Plant
Garriceae / Aucuba Fam.
Kalmia angustifolia, Dwarf Mountain Laurel
Kalmia angustifolia / Dwarf Mountain Laurel
Ericaceae / Heather Fam.
  Steinfurt; from Northern America
Solanum sarachoides, Saracha Nightshade
Solanum sarachoides / Saracha Nightshade
Solanaceae / Nightshade Fam.
Pachysandra terminalis, Carpet Box
Pachysandra terminalis / Carpet Box
Buxaceae / Box Fam.
Euonymus fortunei, Fortune's Spindle
Euonymus fortunei / Fortune's Spindle
Celastraceae / Spindle Fam.
Cyrtomium fortunei var. clivicola, Japanese Holly Fern
Cyrtomium fortunei var. clivicola / Japanese Holly Fern
Polypodiaceae / Ferns
  Bochum, in a chamber for a basement window

Adiantum raddianum, Delta Maidenhair Fern
Adiantum raddianum / Delta Maidenhair Fern
Polypodiaceae / Ferns
  Essen, in a chamber for a basement window

Several ornamental plants are running wild in towns and villages in pavement cracks:
Pentaglottis sempervirens, Green Alkanet, Evergreen Bugloss
Pentaglottis sempervirens / Green Alkanet, Evergreen Bugloss
Boraginaceae / Borrage Fam.

Soleirolia soleirolii, Baby's Tears
Soleirolia soleirolii / Baby's Tears
Urticaceae / Nettle Fam.






Whether these two plants in front of the Vitus bath at Mönchengladbach are neophytes which ingressed into the lawn, is not clear, they could also have been sown as lawn replacement.
Pratia pedunculata, Blue Star Creeper, Trailing Pratia
Pratia pedunculata / Blue Star Creeper, Trailing Pratia
Campanulaceae / Bellflower Fam.

Dichondra repens, Creeping Dichondra
Dichondra repens / Creeping Dichondra
Convolvulaceae / Bindweed Fam.

Sedum pallidum, Turkish Stonecrop
Sedum pallidum / Turkish Stonecrop
Crassulaceae / Stonecrop Fam.




Left: Sedum species are easily runnung wild. At the edges of a former road for tanks near Dreiborn in the Eifel there are particularly abundant incidences.


Right: In cemeteries often Sedum species can be found run wild out of seed from plantings.
Sedum ellacombeanum, Ellacombe Stonecrop
Sedum ellacombeanum / Ellacombe Stonecrop
Crassulaceae / Stonecrop Fam.




Also others of the many ornamental plants which are planted on graves in cemeteries can grow seed and run wild.
Cotula squalida, Common Brassbuttons
Cotula squalida / Common Brassbuttons
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
  Bochum, Dortmund
Melampodium montanum, Mountain Blackfoot
Melampodium montanum / Mountain Blackfoot
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.

Picea omorika, Serbian Spruce
Picea omorika / Serbian Spruce
Pinaceae / Pine Fam.
  Bonn-Poppelsdorf cemetery
Echinacea purpurea, Eastern Purple Coneflower
Echinacea purpurea / Eastern Purple Coneflower
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
  Bonn-Poppelsdorf cemetery

Viola wittrockiana, Pansy
Viola wittrockiana / Pansy
Violaceae / Violet Fam.

On an agricultural compost heap near Werne-Stockum the following neophytes can be found among others:
Chenopodium giganteum, Tree Spinach
Chenopodium giganteum / Tree Spinach
Chenopodiaceae / Goosefoot Fam.
  from Asia
Echinochloa muricata <b>?</b>, Awned Barnyard Grass, American Barnyard Grass
Echinochloa muricata ? / Awned Barnyard Grass, American Barnyard Grass
Poaceae / Grass Fam.
  from America
Xanthium strumarium, Rough Cocklebur, Common Cocklebur
Xanthium strumarium / Rough Cocklebur, Common Cocklebur
Asteraceae / Composite Fam.
  from America





In an old quarry in Hagen the subspecies affine of the Rough Horsetail is available, which originates from North America and North-Eastern Asia and which is sold for garden culture.
Equisetum hyemale subsp. affine, Scouring-Rush Horsetail
Equisetum hyemale subsp. affine / Scouring-Rush Horsetail
Equisetaceae / Horsetail Fam.
Equisetum hyemale subsp. affine, Scouring-Rush Horsetail
Equisetum hyemale subsp. affine / Scouring-Rush Horsetail
Equisetaceae / Horsetail Fam.

Naturally this list of neophytic plants of North Rhine-Westphalia is far from completeness. It will be continued on occasion. There are similar sites on some neophytes in Hesse, ... in Rheinland-Pfalz, ... in (Southern) Baden, ... in Württemberg, and the more extensive presentation on the neophytes of the 'Kurpfalz' region around Mannheim and Heidelberg.  

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